Organized on December 13 at the Cnam, the day brought together nearly 80 participants for its 4th edition.
Gérald Cavalier, president of the association, recalled that fluids have been at the heart of debates for nearly 200 years, with the search for the "best" always in focus. He also pointed out that the now travelling "Cold" exhibition was currently on display at the Saline d'Arc-et-Senans until 22 April. The AFF's annual General Assembly will therefore be held there just before, on 16 and 17 April. After this introduction, Christophe Marvillet, Director of Iffi and Professor at Cnam, introduced the well-crafted series of presentations by detailing the training activities of Cnam and Iffi. He stressed the challenges associated with training as a refrigeration technician: "We must bring young people into these trades and then provide them with the scientific, technical and human skills adapted to the companies in the sector. »
The fluids were of course the subject of all the attention through different presentations. Jacques Guilpart, Director of MF Conseils, spoke about the impacts of the use of highly zeotropic mixtures in industrial and commercial refrigeration. He indicated that not taking slip into account in bottle installations can lead to sizing and regulation/adjustment errors. The influence of the slip is predictable and calculable. All you have to do is predict and anticipate the right settings. "Distillation is something you can control," he concluded. Integrated cascade systems have been around for a long time. »
Philippe Haberschill, HDR Senior Lecturer Emeritus at the Cethil in Lyon, spoke about two-phase refrigerants, which, as André Stumpf, sustainability manager and technical expert at Carrier Transicold, moderator of the day, pointed out, indirect refrigeration is taking up more and more space for safety reasons.
Bachir Bella spoke on behalf of Asercom to convey a simple message: systems using flammable fluids can use components qualified by component manufacturers; recognized safety standards ensure the safe design, installation and operation of systems. The flammable fluid in a system does not cause an Atex zone during normal operation. Atex approval of the components is therefore generally not required. However, for some products, this may be the most appropriate choice. Operating situations where the system circuit is open and thus causes an Atex 2 zone must lead to the electrical components being switched off.
Lionel Audouy, Director of the global platform at Tecumseh, proposed a comparative analysis of three types of fluids from 1 to 10 kW: HC, HFO/HFC and CO2. He summarized as follows: "R 452A, R 448A, R 449A, R 134a and R 513A allow a reduction of the GWP and are almost not prohibited by the F-Gas. They remain a non-flammable and simple solution in transition. R 455A, R 454C and R 1234yf with a GWP of less than 150, low flammability, are existing and future solutions that meet most of the expected criteria. The R 290 is an effective but limited solution in the manufacturer's range. Its use is related to the load used (potential in secondary loop). Non-flammable CO2 with a PRP of 1 is better suited for large installations. »
Still on fluids, Olivier Valet, director of the Cemafroid certification department, reports on a Cemafroid study on HFC handling practices. In general, he mentioned the fact that operators are increasingly qualified (fewer people without certificates); a verification of tools and traceability of operations that are not well controlled (non-compliance rates are still high); evidence that is improving (continuous progress in quality, an overall level that is increasing) and alternatives that are slow to emerge (more commissioning at R 404A).
Franck Krier, President of Framacold, highlighted the relevance of its fluids (RS 50, RS 51 and RS 53) as part of the down phase imposed by the F-Gas, to perpetuate the current installations. Pierre- Emmanuel Danet, technical support manager at Climalife, reported on an analysis of the eco- efficiency of refrigeration systems. Based on the comparison of two stores, one in Hamburg, the other in Seville running either on CO2 or R 448A and R 455A, he concluded by specifying that CO2 was good but was more expensive. The R 448A would be better and easier to use. R 455A would be a definitive solution.
Bachir Bella this time with the cap of Special Projects Director at Emerson presented the proposed solutions for the future. Jean-Pierre Baleydier, Managing Director of Bitzer France, announced the upcoming launch of an expansion unit whose technical details are still kept secret. This unit would be designed to improve, among other things, the cooling capacity for new or existing installations.
Jean-François Bossuat, head of the industrial risk and pollution analysis office (Barpi), a dedicated structure within the DGPR, presented the work carried out by his structure. The Barpi thus manages the steps of collecting information on accidents, analysing the information collected (data entry and data exploitation) and disseminating feedback. The specialist recalled that in refrigeration three regulations are likely to apply to installations: installations classified for the protection of the environment; pressure vessels; fluids used in thermodynamic installations. These three regulations from the Environmental Code require declarations in the event of an accident or loss of products.
According to the surveys, the nature of the fluid is mentioned in 56% of cases. The predominance of the number of events concerns refrigeration installations using ammonia.
Please click here to see the presentation of Bachir Bella, Torben Funder-Kristensen and Regis Leportier